India Mulls Unmanned Mission To Mars By 2013
India Mulls Unmanned Mission To Mars By 2013
Former President A P J Kalam on Sunday said that India is planning to send its mission to Mars in 2030.
“We hope that we will be able to send the mission to Mars in 2030,” he said at a school function here.
Significantly, Kalam had made a similar announcement here in 2001 regarding the Chandrayaan-I mission to the moon when he was scientific adviser to the government.Answering a question, he said the best way to eradicate corruption in the country is to start a campaign from the home.
“For a nation of a billion people, if you ask your father, in case he is unfortunately corrupt, to stop corruption, this is the best way to stop corruption from the home itself. If everybody does that, then corruption will stop,” Kalam told the school children.
He said he had been asked this question earlier also at a school function and his answer at that time was the same.
Later, Kalam also administered an oath asking the young students to fight corruption.
To another question, Kalam said he does not believe in the brain drain theory and said the Indians used to go to other countries to acquire knowledge and wealth in the past also.
When a student asked him the question that how is he a peace-loving person and at the same time a missileman too, Kalam said that strength is necessary to gain respect from other nations.
He asked the students to acquire knowledge from great books and great teachers stating that “knowledge makes the man perfect.”
Reading books also plays an important role in building of characters, he said.
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NASA’s twin robot geologists, the Mars Exploration Rovers, launched toward Mars on June 10 and July 7, 2003, in search of answers about the history of water on Mars. They landed on Mars January 3 and January 24 PST, 2004 (January 4 and January 25 UTC, 2004).
The Mars Exploration Rover mission is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet.
Primary among the mission’s scientific goals is to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. The spacecraft are targeted to sites on opposite sides of Mars that appear to have been affected by liquid water in the past. The landing sites are at Gusev Crater, a possible former lake in a giant impact crater, and Meridiani Planum, where mineral deposits (hematite) suggest Mars had a wet past.
After the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto the surface and opened, the rovers rolled out to take panoramic images. These images give scientists the information they need to select promising geological targets that tell part of the story of water in Mars’ past. Then, the rovers drive to those locations to perform on-site scientific investigations.
These are the primary science instruments carried by the rovers:
Panoramic Camera (Pancam): for determining the mineralogy, texture, and structure of the local terrain.
Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES): for identifying promising rocks and soils for closer examination and for determining the processes that formed Martian rocks. The instrument is designed to look skyward to provide temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere.
Mössbauer Spectrometer (MB): for close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): for close-up analysis of the abundances of elements that make up rocks and soils.
Magnets: for collecting magnetic dust particles. The Mössbauer Spectrometer and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are designed to analyze the particles collected and help determine the ratio of magnetic particles to non-magnetic particles. They can also analyze the composition of magnetic minerals in airborne dust and rocks that have been ground by the Rock Abrasion Tool.
Microscopic Imager (MI): for obtaining close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soils.
Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT): for removing dusty and weathered rock surfaces and exposing fresh material for examination by instruments onboard.
Before landing, the goal for each rover was to drive up to 40 meters (about 44 yards) in a single day, for a total of up to one 1 kilometer (about three-quarters of a mile). Both goals have been far exceeded! Where are the rovers now?
Moving from place to place, the rovers perform on-site geological investigations. Each rover is sort of the mechanical equivalent of a geologist walking the surface of Mars. The mast-mounted cameras are mounted 1.5 meters(5 feet) high and provide 360-degree, stereoscopic, humanlike views of the terrain. The robotic arm is capable of movement in much the same way as a human arm with an elbow and wrist, and can place instruments directly up against rock and soil targets of interest. In the mechanical “fist” of the arm is a microscopic camera that serves the same purpose as a geologist’s handheld magnifying lens. The Rock Abrasion Tool serves the purpose of a geologist’s rock hammer to expose the insides of rocks.