Never take life seriously. Nobody gets out alive anyway.

Egypt in the News … 
Egypt: Pictures: Ancient “Solar Boat” Unearthed at Pyramids   National Geographic – June 25, 2011

Excavating a “Solar Boat” … For the first time in centuries, a multi-ton limestone slab – one of dozens – floats free of the “tomb” of a 4,500-year-old, disassembled “solar boat” at the foot of the Great Pyramids in Giza (map), Egypt, on Thursday. Below are hundreds of delicate wooden “puzzle pieces,” protected by the climate-controlled tent built over the site in 2008. Once the months-long process of extracting the pieces is finished, researchers expect to spend several years restoring the ship before placing it on display in Giza’s Solar Boat Museum near the Pyramids. A similar ship found nearby has already been reconstructed and is on display in the museum. At about 140 feet (43 meters) long, the restored ship is thought to be a bit bigger than its still fragmented sister. Solar boats played an important role in story of the afterlife in ancient Egyptian mythology. Each night the sun god Ra – in the form of the evening sun, Ra-Atum – was thought to sail through the afterlife in one boat to battle gods and beasts until he rose as the morning sun, Ra-Horakhty, and sailed his day boat across the sky. Buried near the Great Pyramid, the buried sister boats were likely intended to assist Pharaoh Khufu on similar journeys during the afterlife.
Egyptian pyramids found by infra-red satellite images   BBC – May 25, 2011

Seventeen lost pyramids are among the buildings identified in a new satellite survey of Egypt. More than 1,000 tombs and 3,000 ancient settlements were also revealed by looking at infra-red images which show up underground buildings. Initial excavations have already confirmed some of the findings, including two suspected pyramids.

Mysterious Ancient Rock Carvings Found Near Nile   Live Science – May 14, 2011

      An archaeological team in the Bayuda Desert in northern Sudan has discovered dozens of new rock art drawings, some of which were etched more than 5,000 years ago and reveal scenes that scientists can’t explain. The team discovered 15 new rock art sites in an arid valley known as Wadi Abu Dom, some 18 miles (29 kilometers) from the Nile River. It¹s an arid valley that flows with water only during rainy periods. Many of the drawings were carved into the rock faces – no paint was used – of small stream beds known as “khors” that flow into the valley. Some of the sites revealed just a single drawing while others have up to 30, said lead researcher Tim Karberg, of the Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Münster in Germany. Another, even more mysterious, set of rock art appears to be at least 5,000 years old and shows a mix of geometric designs. The “oldest rock art we found are the spiral motifs,” said Karberg, which, as their name suggests, twist up in a way that is hard to interpret. Similar drawings have been found in the Sahara Desert. They were created at a time when Africa was a wetter place, with grasslands and savannah dominating Sudan; people were moving to a lifestyle based on animal husbandry and, in some instances, farming.

Finally, what artist wouldn’t like to relax with a bit of music? The team also uncovered several “rock gongs,” large rocks that someone would have smacked a small rock against to make a sound. When the archaeologists experimented with them they found that some of the gongs could produce multiple tones. Karberg said that it¹s difficult to pin down when they were used; it could have been centuries ago or millennia. They may have been used for signaling rather than for actual music. But one thing is for sure, they would have made a pretty decent sound. “As we tried out the sound of many of those rock gongs you could hear (them) quite a long distance,” Karberg said.

Dying Stars to Collide and Create Stellar Baby   Live Science – May 14, 2011
The collision of two dying stars can create a living one, scientists say. Scientists have discovered a binary system of two dying stars, known as white dwarfs, set to collide and give birth to a new, living star. Our sun – and indeed, more than 90 percent of all stars in our galaxy – will one day end up as white dwarf stars, which are made up of dim, fading stellar cores where nuclear fusion has stopped. These cooling embers, which make up about 10 percent of all stars in our galaxy, are typically about 40 to 90 percent of the mass of our sun but pack that all into an Earth-sized ball.

Egyptian Princess Mummy Had Oldest Known Heart Disease   National Geographic – April 15, 2011
An ancient Egyptian princess might have been able to postpone her mummification if she had cut the calories and exercised more, medical experts say. Known as Ahmose Meryet Amon, the princess lived some 3,500 years ago and died in her 40s. She was entombed at the Deir el-Bahri royal mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to the city of Luxor. The princess’s mummified body is among those now housed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Ancient Egyptian priests’ names preserved in pottery   MSNBC – December 29, 2010
Dozens of crocodile-god priests are identified in broken shards of clay. Broken pieces of clay pottery have revealed the names of dozens of Egyptian priests who served at the temple of a crocodile god, Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) announced. Engraved with text dating back to the Roman period, the small potsherds have been found by Italian archaeologists on the west side of the temple dedicated to the crocodile god Soknopaios in Soknopaiou Nesos, an Egyptian village in the Fayoum oasis. Called ostraca from the Greek word ostrakon (meaning “shell”) the inscribed pot fragments ³have been very helpful in illuminating the religious practices and the prosopography of Greco-Roman Egypt,” the SCA said in a statement.

Newly Discovered Walls Buffered Sphinx from Egypt’s Sand   Live Science – November 3, 2010

A routine excavation has uncovered ancient walls surrounding the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) announced. The walls were likely built to protect the Sphinx from blowing sand, said SCA Secretary-General Zahi Hawass, who is overseeing the excavation. During routine digging, SCA researchers found two segments of mud wall on the Giza Plateau, where the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx stand. Both walls stand just under 3 feet (1 meter). One runs north-south and is 282 feet (86 meters) long, while the other runs east-west and is 151 feet (46 m) long. The walls are part of a larger enclosure previously found north of the Sphinx. As told in ancient Egyptian texts, King Thutmose IV once went on a hunting trip near the Sphinx. After the trip, he dreamt that the Sphinx wanted him to clear the sand surrounding its body. According to Thutmose, the Sphinx promised that if he restored the statue, he’d become king of Egypt.
Pictures: Egypt Priest’s Tomb Found Near Pyramids   National Geographic – October 21, 2010

A painting on the wall of a newfound Egyptian tomb shows the occupant, Rudj-Ka (right), and his wife. Rudj-Ka probably lived during the end of ancient Egypt’s 5th dynasty, roughly 4,350 years ago, archaeologists say (ancient Egypt time line). Artwork and artifacts found in his elaborate tomb, found in and along a cliff near the Great Pyramids at Giza, indicate Rudj-Ka was a priest in the mortuary cult of the 4th-dynasty pharaoh Khafra, who ruled from 2558 to 2532 B.C. Khafra is best known as the force behind the second of the three Great Pyramids and of the Great Sphinx. Rudj-Ka appears to have been a priest charged with overseeing purification rituals performed in honor of the dead pharaoh.

Egypt’s top archaeologist shows off new tomb   MSNBC – October 19, 2010

Find could lead to necropolis to excavate near famed Giza pyramids. Standing inside the 4,300-year-old structure, Zahi Hawass said hieroglyphics on the tomb’s walls indicate it belonged to Rudj-ka, a priest inspector in the mortuary cult of the pharaoh Khafre, who built the second largest of Giza’s pyramids. The tomb – about the size of a train car – was adorned with paintings, some of them still vivid. Images on one wall depict a man standing on a boat, spearing fish. Nearby are lotus flowers and different types of birds standing or in flight. A series of false doors line the opposite wall. A painting above one shows two figures seated opposite each other at an offering table. The priest, buried with his family, would have supervised those presenting sacrifices to the pharaoh, Hawass said.
Tomb of Priest May Mark Egyptian City of the Dead   Live Science – October 18, 2010
A maze-like pathway leads to the burial chamber of an ancient Egyptian priest just south of a pyramid builders’ necropolis, according to archaeologists. The tomb could mark a completely new-to-science necropolis (Greek for “city of the dead”), said Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. He added that it might also mark an offshoot of the western necropolis at Giza ­ the latter being home to Egypt’s most famous pyramids, which housed the mummified bodies of ancient royalty. “This tomb could be the first of many in the area,” Hawass said. “Hopefully we have located a new necropolis dedicated to certain members of the royal court.”

Saqqara, Egypt unveils discovery of 4,300-year-old tombs   PhysOrg – July 8, 2010

The tomb includes two false doors with colorful paintings depicting the two people buried there, a father and a son who served as heads of the royal scribes, said Abdel-Hakim Karar, a top archaeologist at Saqqara.

Pictures: Secret Tunnel Explored in Pharaoh’s Tomb   National Geographic – July 7, 2010

Radar reveals extent of buried ancient Egypt city   PhysOrg – June 21, 2010

This map overlay image displays a color satellite image with radar imaging in monochrome showing the outlines of streets, houses and temples underneath the green farm fields and modern town of Tel al-Dabaa, in Egypt. An Austrian archaeological team has used radar imaging to determine the size of the 3,500-year-old capital of Egypt’s foreign occupiers, the Hyksos warrior people from Asia.

Constraining the reign of ancient Egypt   PhysOrg – June 17, 2010
a detailed radiocarbon analysis of short-lived plant remains from the region is providing scientists with a long and accurate chronology of ancient Egyptian dynasties that agrees with most previous estimates but also imposes some historic revisions.

Experts have used scientific dating techniques to verify the historical chronology of ancient Egypt   BBC – June 17, 2010

How old is that mummy, anyway?   MSNBC – June 17, 2010
Figuring out the dates for 3,000 years of pharaonic history can sometimes be as much an art as a science.

Tut¹s leftover linen burial bandages yield new clues bearing an inscription including the date the linen was woven.   MSNBC – May 20, 2010

Headless Egypt King Statue Found; Link to Cleopatra’s Tomb?   National Geographic – May 20, 2010

This headless statue found at Taposiris Magna is thought to be of King Ptolemy IV.

Egyptian blue found in Romanesque altarpiece   PhysOrg – May 5, 2010

Pictures: Ancient Egypt Crocodile Mummies Revealed   National Geographic – May 4, 2010

3,500-year-old false door to afterlife from ancient Egyptian tomb found   PhysOrg – March 29, 2010

A large red granite false door from the tomb of an ancient queen’s powerful vizier has been discovered. The carved stone door — which ancient Egyptians believed was the threshold to the afterlife — was unearthed near the Karnak Temple in Luxor and belongs to the tomb of User, a powerful advisor to the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut who ruled Egypt between 1479 BC and 1458 BC, was the longest reigning female pharaoh. The door, 1.75 metres (5.7 feet) high and 50 cm (19 inches) thick, is engraved with religious texts and various titles used by User, including mayor of the city, vizier and prince.
3,400-year-old statues unearthed in Egypt –   AP – March 16, 2010


      A team of archaeologists unearthed two large red granite statues in southern Egypt at the mortuary temple of one of the most powerful pharaohs, who ruled nearly 3,400 years ago, the Culture Ministry said Tuesday.

A ministry statement said the team discovered a 13 foot (4 meter) statue of Thoth, the ancient god of wisdom and the top part of a statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep III standing next to another god. Both were found buried in the pharaoh’s mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile in the southern temple city of Luxor.

On Feb. 28, archaeologists discovered a massive red granite head of Amenhotep III at the same temple. The head, which is about the height of a person, is the best preserved sculpture of Amenhotep III’s face found to date. Amenhotep III, who was the grandfather of the famed boy-pharaoh Tutankhamun, ruled from 1387-1348 B.C. at the height of Egypt’s New Kingdom and presided over a vast empire stretching from Nubia in the south to Syria in the north. The temple was largely destroyed, possibly by floods, and little remains of its walls. But archaeologists have been able to unearth a wealth of artifacts and statuary in the buried ruins, including two statues of Amenhotep made of black granite found in March 2009.
Spell-covered burial chamber found in Egypt’s Saqqara – 4,000 year old burial chamber of ancient Egyptian Queen Behenu unearthed   Reuters – March 3, 2010


Archaeologists have unearthed the intact sarcophagus of Egypt’s Queen Behenu inside her 4,000-year-old burial chamber near her pyramid in Saqqara, chief archaeologist Zahi Hawass announced Wednesday.

The Old Kingdom queen’s chamber was badly damaged except for two inner walls covered with spells meant to help her travel to the afterlife, he said in a statement. Ancient Egyptians believed that the souls of royalty could fly to heaven, or alternatively use stairs, ramps and ladders with the help of religious spells.

Such engraved spells, known as Pyramid Texts, were common in royal tombs during the 5th and 6th Dynasties. Pyramid Texts were first discovered inside the burial chamber of King Unas’s pyramid at Saqqara, the last king of the 5th Dynasty.

The well-known necropolis of Saqqara, 30 km (20 miles) south of Cairo, served the nearby city of Memphis and was scoured in ancient times by thieves. The 5th Dynasty is generally understood to have lasted from 2465 to 2323 BC, while the 6th Dynasty ran from 2323 to 2150 BC. The Old Kingdom collapsed soon after, amid famine and social upheaval and a breakdown in centralized power.

Philippe Collombert, who headed the French mission that excavated Behenu’s remains, said the team found her sarcophagus within the sprawling necropolis of Pepi I at Saqqara. It is a well-preserved granite sarcophagus engraved with the queen’s different titles, but says nothing about the identity of her husband. Archaeologists are unsure whether Behenu was the wife of Pepi I or Pepi II, both 6th Dynasty rulers. Behenu’s 25-meter-long pyramid was discovered in 2007 along with seven queen pyramids belonging to Inenek, Nubunet, Meretites II, Ankhespepy III, Miha, and an unidentified queen.

A colossal red granite head of one of Egypt’s most famous pharaohs Amenhotep III, has been unearthed in the southern city of Luxor   BBC – February 28, 2010

Cleopatra’s Eye Makeup Warded Off Infections?   National Geographic – January 14, 2010
Ancient Egyptian Cosmetics: ‘Magical’ Makeup May Have Been Medicine for Eye Disease   Science Daily – January 12, 2010

Ancient Animal Graves From Private Zoo?   National Geographic – September 16, 2009

Cave Complex Allegedly Found Under Giza Pyramids Discovery – August 14, 2009


      Tunnels lie hidden beneath the Pyramids of Giza, according to a British explorer who claims to have found the lost underworld of the pharaohs. Populated by bats and venomous spiders, the underground complex was found in the limestone bedrock beneath the pyramid field at Giza.

“There is untouched archaeology down there, as well as a delicate ecosystem that includes colonies of bats and a species of spider which we have tentatively identified as the white widow,” British explorer Andrew Collins said. Collins, who will detail his findings in the book “Beneath the Pyramids” to be published in September, tracked down the entrance to the mysterious underworld after reading the forgotten memoirs of a 19th century diplomat and explorer. “In his memoirs, British consul general Henry Salt recounts how he investigated an underground system of ‘catacombs’ at Giza in 1817 in the company of Italian explorer Giovanni Caviglia,” Collins said.

The document records that the two explored the caves for a distance of “several hundred yards,” coming upon four large chambers from which stretched further cave passageways. With the help of British Egyptologist Nigel Skinner-Simpson, Collins reconstructed Salt’s exploration on the plateau, eventually locating the entrance to the lost catacombs in an apparently unrecorded tomb west of the Great Pyramid.Indeed, the tomb featured a crack in the rock, which led into a massive natural cave.

“We explored the caves before the air became too thin to continue. They are highly dangerous, with unseen pits and hollows, colonies of bats and venomous spiders,” said Collins. According to Collins, the caves – which are tens of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years old – may have both inspired the development of the pyramid field and the ancient Egyptian’s belief in an underworld. “Ancient funerary texts clearly allude to the existence of a subterranean world in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids,” Collins told Discovery News.

Indeed, Giza was known anciently as Rostau, meaning the “mouth of the passages” or the abode of Osiris.

This is the same name as a region of the ancient Egyptian underworld known as the Duat. “The ‘mouth of the passages’ is unquestionably a reference to the entrance to a subterranean cave world, one long rumored to exist beneath the plateau,” Collins told Discovery News. Collins’ claim is expected to cause a stir in the Egyptological world.

Zahi Hawass, chief of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, has dismissed the discovery. “There are no new discoveries to be made at Giza. We know everything about the plateau,” he stated. But Collins remarks that after extensive research, he found no mention of the caves in modern times. “To the best of our knowledge nothing has ever been written or recorded about these caves since Salt’s explorations. If Hawass does have any report related to these caves, we have yet to see it,” Collins said.
Ancient fortress city unearthed in Egypt   MSNBC – July 16, 2009
The mud brick foundation of an ancient palace has been unearthed near the Suez Canal.
Buried City in Oasis Lends View of Ancient Egypt   Live Science – July 15, 2009

Ancient Egypt Temples Found at Gateway Fortress   National Geographic – May 1, 2009

Ancient Egypt Brought To Life With Virtual Model Of Historic Temple Complex   Science Daily – May 1, 2009

Egypt unveils 4,000-year-old necropolis   MSNBC – April 28, 2009
   Painted Egypt Coffins Unearthed   National Geographic – April 27, 2009
Archaeologists in Egypt have found 53 rock tombs containing preserved
mummies and vibrantly painted coffins dating back as far as 4,000 years.

Scorpion King’s Wines–Egypt’s Oldest – Spiked With Meds   National Geographic – April 13, 2009
Ancient medicines were alcoholic   BBC – April 14, 2009
Herbal wine, just the thing for ailing pharoahs   PhysOrg – April 13, 2009

Dozens of Mummies Found in Rock Tombs   National Geographic – April 15, 2009

Egypt unveils pharaonic ‘brain drain’ bed   PhysOrg – March 20, 2009
… ancient pharaonic embalming bed unearthed from a mysterious tomb near Luxor used to prepare bodies for mummification more than 3,000 years ago.

Egyptian Queen’s Perfume to Be Resurrected   National Geographic – March 19, 2009

Ancient Cult Chapels, Egyptian Noblewoman’s Tomb Found   National Geographic – March 6, 2009

A 3,000-year-old noblewoman’s tomb complex has been uncovered in Egypt, archaeologists. The tomb has been identified as belonging to a woman named Isisnofret – possibly the granddaughter of Pharaoh Ramses II, who reigned during the 13th century B.C.

Luxor: Two statues of ancient pharaoh found   MSNBC – March 5, 2009

Amenhotep III ruled Egypt some 3,400 years ago, during the 18th dynasty.
His was the father of Akhenaten and grandfather of King Tutankhamun

Ancient statue found buried at Egypt pyramids   MSNBC – February 24, 2009

Saqqara: Ancient Mummy Warehouse Found Deep Beneath Egypt   National Geographic – February 9, 2009
Mummy storeroom found in Egyptian tomb   MSNBC – February 9, 2009

German guile won Queen Nefertiti   BBC – February 11, 2009

    Saqqara: Pair of 4300 year old tombs discovered in Egypt    BBC – December 23, 2008
Seshseshet’s – Mummy Found In 4,300- Year-Old Pyramid   National Geographic – January 15, 2009

“Screaming Mummy” Is Murderous Son of Ramses III?    National Geographic – November 21, 2008

Great Pyramid Mystery to Be Solved by Hidden Room?    National Geographic – November 15, 2008

    Video – Unlocking the Great Pyramid    Live Science – November 14, 2008

New Pyramid Found in Egypt: 4,300-Year-Old Queen’s Tomb National Geographic – November 11, 2008
    4,300-year-old pyramid discovered in Egypt MSNBC – November 11, 2008
4,300-year-old pyramid discovered in Egypt MSNBC – November 11, 2008

Tomb thought to house remains of Queen Sesheshet the mother of King Teti founder of the 6th Dynasty of Egypt’s Old Kingdom. The pyramid is the 118th found in Egypt and was uncovered near the world’s oldest pyramid at Saqqara, a burial ground for the rulers of ancient Egypt.

Sesheshet – Seshat and Thoth

Rare Egyptian Mud-Brick Settlement Uncovered National Geographic – July 3, 2008

Ancient Egypt Settlement Sheds Light on Everyday Life National Geographic – July 3, 2008

    Video: “Lost” Pyramid Found Buried in Egypt National Geographic – June 6, 2008
Saqqara: “Lost” Pyramid Found Buried in Egypt National Geographic – June 6, 2008
Photos: “Lost” Pyramid Found Buried in Egypt National Geographic – June 6, 2008

Mystery of Headless Pyramid solved MSNBC – June 5, 2008

Egypt’s chief archaeologist said on Thursday he had identified a badly eroded pyramid south of Cairo as that of the 5th Dynasty Pharaoh Menkauhor, who ruled Egypt in the 24th century B.C. – 5th Dynasty

Archaeologists find ancient fortified city MSNBC – May 28, 2008

Partying in Ancient Times MSNBC – May 27, 2008

Part of Ancient Egyptian Fertility Temple Found in Nile National Geographic – May 27, 2008

Pyramids packed with fossil shells ABC – April 28, 2008

      Many of Egypt’s most famous monuments, such as the Sphinx and Cheops pyramid at Giza, contain hundreds of thousands of marine fossils, according to a new study. Most of the fossils are intact and preserved in the monument walls, giving clues to how the monuments were built.

The authors suggest the stones that make up the Giza plateau, Fayum and Abydos monuments must have been carved out of natural stone as they reveal what chunks of the sea floor must have looked like over 4000 years ago, when the buildings were erected. “The observed random emplacement and strictly homogenous distribution of the fossil shells within the whole rock is in harmony with their initial in situ setting in a fluidal sea bottom environment,” write Professor Ioannis Liritzis and his colleagues from the University of the Aegean and the University of Athens.

The researchers analyzed the mineralogy, as well as the chemical makeup and structure, of small material samples chiselled from the Sphinx Temple; the Osirion Shaft; the Valley Temple; the Cheops, Khefren and Menkaure pyramids at Giza; Osirion at Abydos; the Temple of Seti I at Abydos; and Qasr el-Sagha at Fayum. X-ray diffraction and radioactivity measurements, which can penetrate solid materials to help illuminate their composition, were carried out.

The analysis determined the primary building materials were pinky granites, black and white granites, sandstones and various types of limestones. The latter contained numerous shell fossils of the genus Nummulites, simple marine organisms whose name means ‘little coins’. “At Cheops alone they constituted a proportion of up to 40% of the whole building stone rock,” the researchers write in the latest issue of the Journal of Cultural Heritage.

Nummulites that lived during the Eocene period around 55.8-33.9 million years ago are most commonly found in Egyptian limestone.

Fossils have also been unearthed at other sites, such as in Turkey and throughout the Mediterranean. When nummulites are bisected horizontally they appears as a perfect spiral. Since they were common in ancient Egypt, it’s believed the shells were used as coins, perhaps explaining their name. Fossils of their ancient marine relatives – sand dollars, starfish and sea urchins – were also detected in the Egyptian limestone.

Intact fossils throughout the stone — The fossils are largely undamaged and are distributed in a random manner within the stone, in accordance with their typical distribution at sea floors. So, Liritzis and his team argue that the large building stones used to construct the monuments must have been carved out of natural stone instead of cast in moulds. To further their argument, the scientists say the x-ray patterns detect no presence of lime, which would be expected along with the salt natron, which would indicate cast materials. They also point out there are no references of moulds, buckets or other casting tools in early Egyptian paintings, sculptures or texts.

Carved or cast? – Joseph Davidovits, professor and director of France’s Geopolymer Institute, formulated the theory that natural limestone was cast like concrete to build the pyramids. Davidovits says that Liritzis and his team “should have taken into account the scientific analysis” he and other researchers conducted before backing the carved-not-cast hypothesis.

Robert Temple, co-director of the Project for Historical Dating and a visiting research fellow at universities in the US, Egypt and Greece, has also studied Egypt’s monuments. He agrees with Davidovits about the casting. “There is no evidence known that suggests the ancient Egyptians had cranes,” he says. “Without cranes, it is difficult to imagine how they could have lifted giant stones, some as heavy as 200 tonnes.” Temple, however, agrees about the importance of the fossils. “Egyptian pyramid blocks of limestone tend to contain fossil shells and nummulites, often huge quantities of them, many of them intact, and many of them of surprisingly large size,” he says. “Frankly, not many people pay attention to the shells, which I have always thought was a shame. ‘Seashells in the desert’ – a good story.”

Pharaoh Seti I’s Tomb Bigger Than Thought National Geographic – April 17, 2008

A Potted View of Ancient Geometric Imagery – April 17, 2008

Karnak: The largest temple on Earth Philip Coppens – April 3, 2008

Intact Colossus of Egypt’s Queen Tiye Found National Geographic – April 1, 2008

How Were The Egyptian Pyramids Built? Science Daily – March 29, 2008

 City of the Dead Thrives National Geographic – March 29, 2008

Wild ass tamed, buried with Egyptian king MSNBC – March 10, 2008

Beasts of burden found nestled in graves dating back 5,000 years. One of the earliest Egyptian kings carried his “beasts of burden” into the afterlife.

Six New Prehistoric Bat Species Dating 35 Million Years Discovered in Egypt National Geographic – March 7, 2008

False Doors for the Dead Among New Egypt Tomb Finds National Geographic – February 26, 2008

New excavations at the tombs yielded three false doors, including one inscribed with the royal name Khety (right), that served as portals for communicating with the dead.

Rare Egyptian “Warrior” Tomb Found National Geographic – February 17, 2008

Egypt’s Earliest Farming Village Found National Geographic – February 12, 2008

Surprise Egypt Tombs Yield Ornate Coffins, Dog Mummies National Geographic – January 30, 2008

“Beautiful” Mummies, Gilded Caskets Found in Egypt National Geographic – January 30, 2008

 Video: Treasure Beneath My Home National Geographic – January 30, 2008

 Video: Egypt’s Curse National Geographic – January 30, 2008

Evidence of the brutal lives endured by some ancient Egyptians to build the monuments of the Pharaohs has been uncovered by archaeologists BBC – January 25, 2008

Rare Middle-Class Tomb Found From Ancient Egypt National Geographic – January 19, 2008

A Case for Mistaken Identity Thunderbolts – December 26, 2007

Ra was often lauded as “Lord of the Circles” and as “he who entereth [or liveth] in the circle.” He was described as “the sender forth of light into his circle” and as the “Governor of [his] circle.”

Surprise Finds at Egypt’s Temple of Amun “Change Everything” National Geographic – December 17, 2007

A series of surprising discoveries has been made at the foot of Egypt’s famous Temple of Amun at Karnak, archaeologists say.

Canal Linking Ancient Egypt Quarry to Nile Found National Geographic – October 24, 2007
Experts have discovered a canal at an Aswan rock quarry that they believe was used to help float some of ancient Egypt’s largest stone monuments to the Nile River.

King Tut Died in Hunting Accident, Expert Says National Geographic – October 23, 2007

King Tutankhamun likely died after falling from his chariot while hunting …



Snake-bird gods fascinated both Aztecs and Ancient Egyptians


Reuters – September 24, 2007

Ancient Mexicans and Egyptians who never met and lived centuries and thousands of miles apart both worshiped feathered-serpent deities, built pyramids and developed a 365-day calendar, a new exhibition shows. Billed as the world’s largest temporary archeological showcase, Mexican archeologists have brought treasures from ancient Egypt to display alongside the great indigenous civilizations of Mexico for the first time.

The exhibition, which boasts a five-tonne, 3,000-year-old sculpture of Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II and stone carvings from Mexican pyramid at Chichen Itza, aims to show many of the similarities of two complex worlds both conquered by Europeans in invasions 1,500 years apart. “There are huge cultural parallels between ancient Egypt and Mexico in religion, astronomy, architecture and the arts. They deserve to be appreciated together,” said exhibition organizer Gina Ulloa, who spent almost three years preparing the 35,520 square-feet (3,300 meter-square) display.

The exhibition, which opened at the weekend in the northern Mexican city of Monterrey, shows how Mexican civilizations worshiped the feathered snake god Quetzalcoatl from about 1,200 BC to 1521, when the Spanish conquered the Aztecs.

From 3,000 BC onward Egyptians often portrayed their gods, including the Goddess of the Pharaohs Isis, in art and sculpture as serpents with wings or feathers. The feathered serpent and the serpent alongside a deity signifies the duality of human existence, at once in touch with water and earth, the serpent, and the heavens, the feathers of a bird,” said Ulloa. Egyptian sculptures at the exhibition — flown to Mexico from ancient temples along the Nile and from museums in Cairo, Luxor and Alexandria – show how Isis’ son Horus was often represented with winged arms and accompanied by serpents. Cleopatra, the last Egyptian queen before the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC, saw herself as Isis and wore a gold serpent in her headpiece.

Uncanny Similarities

In the arts, Mexico’s earliest civilization, the Olmecs, echo Egypt’s finest sculptures. Olmec artists carved large man-jaguar warriors that are similar to the Egyptian sphinxes on display showing lions with the heads of gods or kings. The seated statue of an Egyptian scribe carved between 2465 and 2323 BC shows stonework and attention to detail that parallels a seated stone sculpture of an Olmec lord. There is no evidence the Olmecs and Egyptians ever met.

Shared traits run to architecture, with Egyptians building pyramids as royal tombs and the Mayans and Aztecs following suit with pyramids as places of sacrifice to the gods. While there is no room for pyramids at the exhibition — part of the Universal Forum of Cultures, an international cultural festival held in Barcelona in 2004 — organizers say it is the first time many of pieces have left Egypt. They include entire archways from Nile temples, a bracelet worn by Ramses II and sarcophagi used by the pharaohs. Mexico has also brought together Aztec, Mayan and Olmec pieces from across the country.


Ancient Pharaoh Temple Discovered Inside Egypt Mosque National Geographic – September 27, 2007

Egyptian Tomb of Noblewoman Found National Geographic – August 16, 2007
Map National Geographic – August 16, 2007

Mummy Birds Recovered From Egypt Factory National Geographic – August 9, 2007

French architect offers a new theory on how the Egyptians built the Great Pyramid at Giza Smithsonian – August 6, 2007

“Gentrified” Egyptian Burial Chamber Discovered National Geographic – August 2, 2007

Ancient “Lost” City’s Remains Found Under Alexandria’s Waters National Geographic – July 31, 2007

Egypt’s Largest Pharaoh-Era Fortress Discovered, Experts Announce National Geographic – July 29, 2007

Mummies’ Fake Toes Could Be First Prosthetics National Geographic – July 29, 2007

Egypt’s Oldest Known Art Identified, Is 15,000 Years Old National Geographic – July 11, 2007

Photo Gallery: Who Was King Tut’s Father? National Geographic – July 10, 2007

Palaeolithic rock art, like Lascaux caves in France, discovered in Upper Egypt Al-Ahram – June 19, 2007

Ancient Gold Center Discovered on the Nile National Geographic – June 18, 2007

Ancient Egyptian City Spotted From Space Live Science – June 6, 2007

Images captured from space pinpoint telltale signs of previous habitation in the swatch of land 200 miles south of Cairo, which digging recently confirmed as an ancient settlement dating from about 400 A.D.

European Man Found in Ancient Chinese Tomb, Study Reveals National Geographic – May 26, 2007

Ancient Egypt Cities Leveled by Massive Volcano, Ash Find Suggests National Geographic – April 2, 2007

Great Pyramid Built Inside Out, French Architect Says National Geographic – April 2, 2007

Archaeologists have been unveiling the latest discoveries from the Saqqara necropolis, or city of the dead, south of Egypt’s capital, Cairo. BBC – February 21, 2007

The Tassili n¹Ajjer: birthplace of ancient Egypt? Philip Coppens – February 9, 2007

Alexander’s Afghan gold Al-Ahram – February 7, 2007

Ancient Semitic Snake Spells Deciphered in Egyptian Pyramid National Geographic – February 6, 2007

A sandstone lintel painted with gilded solar child deities was unearthed yesterday at the Temple of Mut in Luxor Al-Ahram – February 6, 2007

Sex and booze figured in Egyptian rites – Drinking Festival MSNBC – October 31, 2006 

Egyptian Dentists’ Tombs Found by Thieves National Geographic – October 24, 2006
Thieves lead to discovery of Egypt tombs – Pharaoh’s Dentists BBC – October 23, 2006

Mummy DNA Reveals Birth of Ancient Scourge Scientific American – October 9, 2006

Ancient humans ‘followed rains’ BCC – July 21, 2006
Exodus From Drying Sahara Gave Rise to Pharaohs, Study Says National Geographic – July 20, 2006
Sahara Desert Was Once Lush and Populated Live Science – July 20, 2006

Theory of Continental Drift

The Great Rift Valley Wikipedia

Satellite Captures Creation of New Continental Crust Scientific American – July 20, 2006
A new sea is forming in the desert of northeastern Ethiopia.

Secrets of ocean birth laid bare BBC – July 20, 2006

Satellite Captures Creation of New Continental Crust News in Science – July 20, 2006
A new sea is forming in the desert of northeastern Ethiopia. Millions of years from now, the pulling apart of the Arabian and Nubian tectonic plates will allow waters to rush in and widen the Red Sea.

Scientists: Earthquakes causing Red Sea to part MSNBC – July 19, 2006

Arabian tectonic plate and African plate are moving away from each other

2,500 year-old sarcophagi uncovered CNN – June 26, 2006

    Egyptian archaeologists have found two ancient sarcophagi close to the pyramids. The sarcophagi, found about a kilometer (0.6 miles) south of the pyramids in Giza, dated to the late 26th dynasty, or about 2,500 years old. Hieroglyphs referring to the ancient Egyptian gods Osiris, god of the dead, and the sun-god Ra were painted on the larger sarcophagus, which measured about 2 meters (6 feet 6.74 inches) tall, 70 centimeters wide and 60 centimeters deep and was painted red, blue and green, the report said. The name of sarcophagus’ owner, Neb Ra Khatow, and ritual incantations to the gods were also painted on the sarcophagus. The second sarcophagus had a more human form and was found inside the first. Hawass said it was in good condition, and that a wreath made of plants encircled the mummy inside.

Egyptian Temple Yields 17 Statues of Lion-Headed Goddess’ National Geographic – March 14, 2006

Huge impact crater found in Egypt BBC – March 6, 2006
A giant crater made by a space impact millions of years ago has been found in Egypt’s western desert.

Giant Ancient Egyptian Sun Temple Discovered in Cairo National Geographic – March 2, 2006

Archaeologists discovered a pharaonic sun temple with large statues believed to be of King Ramses II under an outdoor marketplace in Cairo


Valley of the Kings KV 63
Ancient Flowers Found in Egypt Coffin in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings “KV 63” National Geographic – June 30, 2006 – Follow-up to story below


Pharaonic tomb find stuns Egypt
BBC – February 10, 2006

Intact tomb found in Egypt’s Valley of Kings
2 Part Story MSNBC – February 10, 2006

New Tomb Opened in Egypt’s Valley of Kings
National Geographic

Archaeologists have discovered an intact, ancient Egyptian tomb in the Valley of the Kings, the first since King Tutankhamun’s Tomb was found in 1922. The tomb contains five sarcophagi with mummies, breaking the nearly century long belief that there’s nothing more to find in the valley where some of Egypt’s greatest pharaohs were buried.

Found in the tomb was the red granite head of King Amenhotep III – father of the Pharaoh Akhenaten.

Researchers discover 3,400-year-old artifact depicting Queen Ti MSNBC – January 25, 2006

    Egyptologists have discovered a statue of Queen Ti, wife of one of Egypt¹s greatest pharaohs and grandmother to the boy-king Tutankhamun, at an ancient temple in Luxor, an Egyptian antiquities official said. The roughly 3,400-year-old statue was well-preserved. Ti’s husband, Amenhotep III, presided over an era which saw a renaissance in Egyptian art. A number of cartouches, or royal name signs, of Amenhotep III were found on the statue, and the statue’s design and features allowed researchers to identify it as a New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty statue of Queen Ti.

Akhenaten was the son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy, a descendent of a Hebrew tribe.

Queen Tiy
 wearing a double feathered crown

Ancient Egypt ‘respected dwarfs’ BBC – December 27, 2005

Glassmakers key to Egypt’s status BBC – June 17, 2005

King Tut mania endures as artifcats return to the US ABC – June 9, 2005

The New World equivalent of the Gizeh pyramids may well be Teotihuacan
Its layout also mimics astronomical information, even that of Orion’s Belt.

Ancient Pharaoh’s Statue Found Discovery – June 6, 2005

Neferhotep was the 22nd king of the 13th Dynasty. The son of a temple priest in Abydos, he ruled Egypt from 1696-1686 BC. Buried for nearly 3,600 years, a rare statue of Egypt’s King Neferhotep I has been brought to light in the ruins of Thebes.

In pictures: Egypt’s most beautiful mummy ever discovered BBC – May 4, 2005

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri National Geographic – April 2005

Ancient necropolis found in Egypt BBC – April 2005
Archaeologists say they have found the largest funerary complex yet dating from the earliest era of ancient Egypt, more than 5,000 years ago

40 million year old whale found in Egyptian desert News in Science – April 2005

An American palaeontologist says he and a team of Egyptians have found what could be the most complete fossilised skeleton of the 40 million year old whale Basilosaurus isis in Egypt’s Western Desert.

King Tut Liked Red Wine Science Daily – March 2005

King Tut Not Murdered Died from a Broken Leg Injury National Geographic – March 2005

Archaeologists Uncover Bead-Covered Mummy in Saqqara March 2005


      Archaeologists uncovered three coffins and a remarkably well-preserved mummy in a 2,500-year old tomb discovered by accident after opening a secret door hidden behind a statue in a separate burial chamber. The Australian team was exploring a much older tomb dating back 4,200 years belonging to a man believed to have been a tutor to the 6th Dynasty King Pepi II, when they moved a pair of statues and discovered the door, said Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s top antiquities official. Inside, they found a tomb from the 26th Dynasty with three intricate coffins, each with a mummy.

“Inside one coffin was maybe one of the best mummies ever preserved,” Hawass told reporters at the excavation site in the cemetery of Saqqara, a barren hillside pocked with ancient graves about 15 miles south of Cairo. “The chest of the mummy is covered with beads. Most of the mummies of this period about 500 B.C. – the beads are completely gone, but this mummy has them all,” he said, standing over one of the mummies that was swathed in turquoise blue beads and bound in strips of black linen. The names of the mummies have not been determined, but the tomb is thought to be that of a middle-class official. Hawass said the wooden coffins, called anthropoids because they were in the shape of human beings, bore inscriptions dating to the 26th Dynasty, together with a statue of a deity called Petah Sakar. Petah was the god of artisans, Hawass said, while Sakar was the god of the cemetery. The door was hidden behind 4,200-year-old statues of a man believed to have been Meri, the tutor of Pepi II, and Meri’s wife, whose name was not revealed.

Meri also was believed to oversee four sacred boats found in the pyramids, which were buried with Egypt’s kings to help them in the afterlife, Hawass said. “I believe this discovery can enrich us about two important periods in our history, the Old Kingdom, which dates back to 4,200 years, and the 26th Dynasty, that was 2,500 years ago,” Hawass said. According to tradition, Pepi II – the last ruler of the 6th Dynasty – ruled from 2278-2184 B.C., one of the longest reigns in ancient Egyptian history. Naguib Kanawati, the head of the Australian team from Sydney’s Macquarie University, said the site had fallen into neglect after Pepi II’s rule and was covered by 50 feet of sand, until it was used again as a cemetery 2,600 years later. “By that time the art of mummification was perfected to the extreme,” Kanawati said.

The world’s biggest meteorite field found in Egypt Pravda – October 2004

Egyptian Animals Were Mummified Same Way as Humans National Geographic – September 2004

Hidden tomb found in pyramid’s shadow MSNBC – September 2004

Egypt’s antiquities chief, Zahi Hawass, revealed a 2,500-year-old hidden tomb under the shadow of one of Giza’s three giant pyramids, containing 400 pinkie-finger-sized statues and six coffin-sized niches carved into granite rock.

Archaeologists have uncovered the real life site of the fabled ancient university of Alexandria Al Ahram – June 2004

Hundreds of Mummies Found in Egyptian Caves at Saqqara – 26th Dynasty National Geographic – May 2004

Ancient Egyptian Love Poems Reveal a Lust for Life National Geographic – April 2004

Bubonic Plague Traced to Ancient Egypt National Geographic – March 2004

The bubonic plague, or Black Death, may have originated in ancient Egypt, according to a new study.

Mummified lion unearthed in Egypt BBC – January 2004 Archaeologists have uncovered the first example of a lion mummified by the ancient Egyptians, in the tomb of the woman who helped rear King Tutankhamun.

The Ibis – “Bird of the Pharaohs” Stages Comeback National Geographic – October 2003

Strange Egyptian mummy with four feet Science Daily – September 2003

U.S. Museum to Return Ramses I Mummy to Egypt May 2003 – National Geographic

Baseball invented by the ancient Egyptians SI – May 2003

Sakkara: 5,000 year old mummy found – oldest evidence of mummification BBC – April 2003

Rare Greek Scroll Found With Egyptian Mummy October 2002 – National Geographic

Opening Gatenbrink’s Door National Geographic – September 2002














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