Halloween (a shortening of All Hallows’ Evening), also known as Hallowe’en or All Hallows’ Eve,is a yearly holiday observed around the world onOctober 31, the night before All Saints’ Day. Much like Day of the Dead celebrations, the Christian feast of All Hallows’ Eve, according to some scholars, incorporates traditions from pagan harvest festivals and festivals honouring the dead, particularly the Celtic Samhain;other scholars maintain that the feast originated entirely independently of Samhain.Typical festive Halloween activities include trick-or-treating (also known as “guising”), attendingcostume parties, carving jack-o’-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, visiting haunted attractions, playing pranks, telling scary stories, watching horror films, as well as the religious observances of praying, fasting and attending vigils or church services.
The History and Origin of Halloween
Halloween as it is celebrated these days is but a pale representation of its rich and multicultural history. It is not, as some would call it, a celebration of the Devil or of Hell or of the Damned, but rather a blending of the celebrations marking the end of the growing season, a heralding of the coming of the winter months and folk traditions that told of the day when the veil between the living and the dead, ever a transparent, gossamer veil at that, would lift and ghosts and ghouls would walk among the living. From those many traditions, coming to us from the Celts, the Roman rituals and even Catholic tradition, we get the stirrings of what would eventually become Halloween.
Back in the Old Days
Back in the old days, or once upon a time, in the tradition of fairy tales, there were the Celtic people and their Druid priests. The Druids were believed to have the ability, among other skills, to commune with the dead. Their powers, it was rumored, were much more powerful on the day of Samhain (pronounced sow-en), which was the last day of the year in the Celtic calendar. But, before believing that the Halloween celebration came directly from Samhain, a day mistakenly attributed directly to the Wiccans rather than to the Celts, you must understand that it is a blend of Hallowmas, a celebration of Catholic origins, as well as the Roman festival called Feralia.
On the day of Samhain, the Celtic people would all extinguish their home’s hearth fire. They would gather in front of a blessed bonfire and would sing, dance and listen to the stories that were told during the celebration. At the end of the evening, each person would take some of the bonfire home to relight their heart fire in hopes of ensuring good fortune to their home and family for the coming year. It is said that if your hearth fire would not light from the sacred bonfire, misfortune, even death, would befall someone in the house that very year.
By the 19th century, most of the religious aspects of the Halloween celebration had dwindled away and it was mostly a secular holiday, a gathering of community with only some of the remnants of the past clinging to it like the cobwebs of a haunted house. People would still dress up in costume, but less for the original reason of confusing the dead and more for just plain entertainment and fun.
Halloween Travels to the New World
European immigrants brought many of their traditions and beliefs with them to the New World, even those that were sometimes frowned upon or scoffed at. Halloween itself was largely disallowed, even forbidden, but in Maryland, the tradition was not only allowed but encouraged. The people there held what they called “play parties” where they would take turns telling each other’s fortunes, dancing, singing and telling ghost stories. The children would dress in costumes and try to scare one another as well.
The Irish immigrants came to the new world in great masses, fleeing from the Potato Famine that was starving them to death, and brought with them the Halloween tradition of going door to door looking for sweets and other treats. The tradition of trick or treating is still a favorite among little children today.
The Witchcraft, Halloween Connection
There are still many, especially among fundamentalist Christians, who believe that Halloween is nothing more than a celebration of paganism and witchcraft because of some of the traditions that are involved. It was thought that on Halloween night, a young woman could determine who her future spouse would be by staring into a mirror in a darkened room or by peeling an apple in one long strip and then casting the peel over her shoulder. Other traditions involved baking small coins and trinkets as well as a single, plain ring into a barm brack, a type of fruit cake that would be shared among the neighbors. If you got a trinket in your piece – that was your fate for the coming year, with the person who got the ring destined to wed.
While the Catholic Church bears no ill will toward the Halloween traditions and the holiday itself, there are some Christian churches who say that it encourages witchcraft and may even lead to Satanism. These churches hold “Hell Houses” meant to scare children and young adults away from the traditions and to lead them back to the church. Some of these churches even hand out pamphlets and religious tracts on Halloween night to be found when the children go through their candy.
profile of singer Roop Kumar Rathod.
Profession: Playback Singer, Bollywood. Family: Wife , Sonali
He wanted to be different! He wanted to carry on his father's legacy! He wanted to make a difference! He has done all that and more. That's Roop Kumar Rathod for you, who has carved his own special niche in the world of music, be itghazals or playback singing.His is a voice that stands out amongst the rest, a voice that stirs your heart. The unforgettable award winning song 'Sandese aate hain' from the film 'Border', is just an example. Roopkumar is the son of the late Pandit Chaturbhuj Rathod, the classical luminary who in his time also groomed Kalyanji – Anandji and singer Manhar.Roop Kumar choose to continue his father's legacy and learnt the tabla and began to play with Pankaj Udhas and Anup Jalota unlike elder brother Shravan Rathod (of the Nadeem-Shravan duo) who took up music composing or younger brother Vinod Rathod who took to playback singing. He played the tabla for Shyam Benegal's 'Discovery of India', for ghazals, Qawaalis, Bhajans sung by Lata Mangeshkar, performed on stage. He was even called for select songs like those of Laxmikant – Pyarelal’s Sur Sangam.His first love still remains playing the tabla, a passion he gave up in 1984 to start a new career in the field of singing. Before long he realized that this was not his goal, so he entered the world ofghazals. Soon after carving his niche in ghazals, he established himself as a good playback singer to reckon with, while experimenting with fusion music and giving music concerts with Gurtu and others. Constantly donning different roles, he believes that learning is a never-ending process, which is why he still learns the nuances of ghazal singing from his guru Ustad Niyaz Ahmed Khan. Roopkumar Rathod was introduced as a playback singer by Laxmikant – Pyarelal in Angaar (1992), though his brother (Nadeem -) Shravan was already an established music director. Filmmaker Shashilal Nair, who had heard Roop at a concert, told Laxmikant that he would like him to sing. They were sufficiently impressed by the youngster to make him the prime singer later in films like Bhairavi (‘Om Namah Shivaye’ and ‘Moh Maaya Ko’), Gumraah (‘Duniya Kismat Aur Khuda’ and ‘Main Tera Aashiq Hoon’), Mohabbat Ki Arzoo (‘Raha Jo Dil Mein’) and Tejaswini. Anu Malik used his voice in ‘Barsaat Ke Mausam Mein’ (Naajayaz) while Nadeem – Shravan gave him a few lines in Raja and an insignificant song in Andolan and some other forgettable films. But Roopkumar was finally established with his 1997 hit Border (Anu Malik) in which he sang ‘To Chalun’ and the chartbuster – 6c4 cum – award winner‘Sandesein Aate Hain’. He has subsequently sung under various top composers in films as varied as Anu Malik’s Hero ,Hindustani and Kareeb(‘Tum Juda Hokar Hamein’), Anand – Milind’s Dahek and Hogi Pyar Ki Jeet, Vishal’s Hu Tu Tu (all songs for Nana Patekar) and Godmother, Raamlaxman’s Hum Saath Saath Hain.Roopkumar Rathod has sung in Champion (Anu Malik), Censor (a qawwali) for Jatin – Lalit and Sanjeev Darshan in Aashiq. His best songs include ‘Kho Diye Jitne Lamhe’ (Vinashak), Jatin – Lalit’s ‘Zindagi Maut Na Ban Jaye’ (Sarfarosh) and ‘Yeh Zameen Hai Rehguzar’ (Dillagi) and ‘Khamosh Raat’ under A. R. Rahman for Thakshak. His Aashirwaad title song ‘Nanhi Si Muskaan’ and those of other television series like Discovery of India, Badaltey Rishtey and Rishtey are among his other accomplishments. Roop is happliy married to Sonali. She hails from a business family and is the daughter Leena Jhaveri, a classical dancer. A dedicated student of Indian classical music, her basic grounding came from Purshottam Upadhyay and Hridaynath Mangeshkar, under whom she still trains. In 1978, she lost her singing voice, and the condition remained for 6 years, defying medical treatment. Wanting to remain in music, even if not vocal, she began to learn the sitar. And her voice slowly ‘came back’ and she honed it with her riyaaz. Ustad Niyaz Ahmed Khan also groomed her. Sonalee came out with an album Aaghaaz (she won the Best ghazal singer award the same year) in 1986. Her other albums include Bhajan Kalash, Bhajan Yatra and Khazana (all live), Mogra Nu Phool in Gujrati, Shabnam and Dilkash. While Roop continues to be a leading composer – singer outside films and is open for films after the success of Mohabbat Ho Gayee. Sonali continues in her traditional vein with increasing popularity. Best Of Roop Kumar Rathod: Song Movie Chhota Sa Mann Hai Bas Itna sa Khwab hai
Le Chalen Doliyon Mein Filhaal Rehna toh hai Tum To Chalun Border Watan Waalon Indian Phool Khila De - Roop Kumar Rathod Album: Life Express Singers: Roop Kumar Rathod Starring: Kiran Janjani, Rituparna Sengupta, Divya Dutta, Alok Nath, Yashpal Sharma,Nandita Puri Music: Roop Kumar Rathod Director: Anup Das Lyricist: Shakeel Azmi Year: 2010 Language:
Hindi Category: Latest Play All man # Le Chalen Doliyon Mein-roop Kumar-chitra Album: Filhaal Singers:
Chithra, Roop Kumar Rathod Starring: Palash Sen, Sanjay Suri, Sushmita Sen,Tabu Music: Anu Malik Director: Meghna Gulzar Lyricist: Gulzar Year: 2002 Language: Hindi Category: Latest Play All man # Tu Hi Tu - Roop Kumar And Javed Ali Album: Haasil Singers: Roop Kumar, Javed Ali Starring: Hrishitaa Bhatt, Jimmy Shergill Music: Jatin-lalit Director:
Tigmanshu Dhulia Lyricist: Israr Ansari Year: 2003 Language: Hindi Category: Latest Play All man # Raga Gandhi Malhar Tum Main Sab Roop KumarGandharva Album:
Swaranjali Pt Kuamr Gandharva Singers: Pt Kumar Gandgarva Music: Pt Kumar Gandharva Year: 1992 Language: Hindustani Category: Album Play All man # Mela Dilon Ka - Roop Kumar Sonu Alka Album: Mela Singers: Alka Yagnik, Udit Narayan, Sadhana Sargam, Abhijee Starring: Aamir Khan, Twinkle Khanna Music: Anu Malik, Leslie Lewis, Rajesh Roshan Director: Dharmesh Darshan Lyricist: Dev Kohli, Dharmesh Darshan, Sameer Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Latest Play All man # Aisa Koi Zindagi Se Album: Vaada - Roop Kumar Rathod Singers: Roopkumar Rathod Starring: Roop Kumar Rathod Music: Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Lyricist: Roop Kumar Rathod Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Ghazals Play All man # Roz - E - Awwal Album: Vaada - Roop Kumar Rathod Singers: Roopkumar Rathod Starring: Roop Kumar Rathod Music: Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Lyricist: Roop Kumar Rathod Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Ghazals Play All man # Ye Subah Saans Legi Album: Vaada - Roop Kumar Rathod Singers: Roopkumar Rathod Starring: Roop Kumar Rathod Music: Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Lyricist: Roop Kumar Rathod Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Ghazals Play All man # Doob Rahe Ho Album: Vaada - Roop Kumar Rathod Singers: Roopkumar Rathod Starring: Roop Kumar Rathod Music: Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Lyricist: Roop Kumar Rathod Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Ghazals Play All man # Chori Chori Album: Vaada - Roop Kumar Rathod Singers: Roopkumar Rathod Starring: Roop Kumar Rathod Music: Ustad Amjad Ali Khan Lyricist: Roop Kumar Rathod Year: 2000 Language: Hindi Category: Ghazals Play All man #
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